Here are standard formats and examples for basic information that is bibliographic by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your variety of works cited must start at the conclusion of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list because of the author’s last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Just the initials of this first and names that are middle given. An, or The if the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A.
For dates, spell out of the names of months in the text of the paper, but abbreviate them when you look at the directory of works cited, with the exception of May, June, and July. Use either the style that is day-month-year22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and get consistent. Utilizing the style that is month-day-year make sure to add a comma following the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had absolutely no way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, then publication names should be in italics as they are below if you use a computer. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the very first type of an entry should be flush left, plus the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to the rule will be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should nevertheless be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the quantity number which, using the title, can also be italicized.
If there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name of this last author. If there are many than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the others.
Put the date of publication in parentheses soon after the true name associated with author. Place a period following the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes round the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of The United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a history of the heroes associated with the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton pay for papers net.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In This new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: usually do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period following the title. Then provide the page range (in regular type) without ”pp. if a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and” If the periodical will not use volume numbers, such as newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, 9) april. Making the grade in the present schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, make reference to the specific document that is website. If a document is undated, use ”n.d.” (for no date) soon after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period of time. Continually look at your references to online documents. There is absolutely no period following a URL. Note: If you cannot find several of this given information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, 2) august. Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html june
Note: If a document is contained within a sizable and complex website (such as for instance that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and also the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.